Up until today, the revocation of Article 370 has been the most far-reaching political movement in the Indian administered state of Kashmir. The modification of the constitutional provision that grants J&K special status, a greater degree of autonomy than that enjoyed by other Indian states, has been hotly contested since its creation in 1950.
The administrative Indian state of Jammu & Kashmir (J&K), whose political status was dramatically overhauled since August 5 by the Narendra Modi government, has rarely been free of controversy.
On Monday the government scrapped provisions of Article 370, which provides special status to Jammu and Kashmir.
In addition, Home Minister Amit Shah also introduced a Bill bifurcating the State of Jammu of Kashmir into Union Territory of Ladakh and the Union Territory of Jammu and Kashmir.
"There has been a long-pending demand of the people of Ladakh to give it the status of a Union Territory to enable them to realize their aspirations," a statement from Home Minister Amit Shah said.
The modern political history of the state itself is a tale of its often changing status beginning in the 19th century, turmoil following India’s partition in 1947, and simmering uncertainty since then.
Here is a timeline of events that led up to the current situation:
Formation of princely state
1846: Maharaja Gulab Singh of Jammu, a Dogra ruler, buys the region of Jammu & Kashmir from the East India Company after signing the Treaty of Amritsar – which, in itself, is an addendum to the Treaty of Lahore.
1930: Kashmiri Muslims are unhappy with the repressive Maharaja Hari Singh’s rule and feel his policies are prejudiced against them.
1931: The movement against the Maharaja in Kashmir begins but is suppressed by State forces.
1932 April: The Glancy Commission, appointed by the Maharaja, recommended the establishment of a legislative assembly called the Praja Sabha or Legislative Assembly.
1932 June: Sheikh Mohammed Abdullah sets up the ‘All Jammu and Kashmir Muslim Conference’ to fight for the rights of State's Muslims.
1938 January: Sheikh Abdullah's first meeting with Jawaharlal Nehru in a Lahore railway station. Abdullah's efforts to secularise the Muslim Conference supported by Nehru.
1938 May: Hindu Progressive Party launches, pledging support to Hindu–Muslim unity.
1939: The National Conference launches the ‘Quit Kashmir’ movement demanding abrogation of the Treaty of Amritsar and a call of sovereignty for the people of Kashmir.
1940 March: The Pakistan Resolution passes and demands the establishment of an independent state, comprising all regions in which Muslims are the majority.
1944: Sheikh Abdullah proposes a Naya Kashmir (New Kashmir) program to the Maharaja, calling for a constitutional monarchy.
Kashmir unrest and accession
1946 May: Sheikh Abdullah launches Quit Kashmir movement against the Maharaja; he is arrested and charged with sedition.
1947 March: An internal revolt begins in the Poonch region but is suppressed by the Maharaja’s forces.
1947 July: Muhammad Ali Jinnah declares that if Kashmir opted for independence, Pakistan will have friendly relations with it. Liaquat Ali Khan endorses this position.
1947 August: Pakistan Army formulated Operation Gulmarg to organize a tribal invasion of Kashmir.
1947 September: Pakistan blocks supplies of petrol, sugar, salt and kerosene and stops trade in timber, fruits, fur and carpets in violation of the standstill agreement.
Justice Mehr Chand Mahajan visits Kashmir and accepts the Maharaja's invitation to be the prime minister of the state.
1947 October: Maharaja Hari Singh executes the Instrument of Accession.
The Maharaja agrees to accede into the Dominion of India. Indian troops move in. The armed conflict continues.
1947 November: Kashmir signs the Standstill Agreement with Pakistan.
The Maharaja delays his decision to accede into either India or Pakistan.
War and diplomacy
1948 January: India takes the Kashmir issue to the United Nations (UN) Security Council.
The UN suggests a plebiscite. India and Pakistan fail to agree on how to demilitarise the region.
The British Cabinet decides to send a special delegation to handle the Kashmir issue in the Security Council.
UN Security Council passes Resolution 38, which calls upon India and Pakistan to refrain from aggravating the situation and requests they inform the Council of any "material changes" in the situation.
March 1948: Hari Singh appoints an interim government in J&K.
Sheikh Abdullah becomes the prime minister.
1949: Indian and Pakistani ceasefire issues.
This leaves India in control of most of the valley including Jammu and Ladakh.
Pakistan gains control of part of Kashmir including Azad Kashmir and Northern territories.
1949 October: The Indian Constituent Assembly adopts Article 370 of the Constitution, initiating special status and internal autonomy for Jammu and Kashmir, with Indian jurisdiction in Kashmir limited to the three areas agreed in the Instrument of Accession: defense, foreign affairs and communications.
1950 January: India gains independence and becomes a republic.
1951 September: Elections are held for the Constituent Assembly of Jammu and Kashmir.
The UN Security Council passes Resolution 91 to the effect that such elections did not substitute a plebiscite.
1952 January: Jammu Praja Parishad renews agitation and calls for full integration of the state with India.
The army is called to impose order. Several hundred activists are imprisoned.
1952 June: State Constituent Assembly proposes to abolish the hereditary monarchy.
1953 May: Abdullah heads a subcommittee of the National Conference which recommends four options for the state's future. All propositions involve a plebiscite or independence.
1957: India’s Home Minister declares that the State of Jammu and Kashmir is a fundamental part of India and there can be no question of a plebiscite.
Kashmiri activists continue to insist on self-determination.
1958 August: Sheikh Abdullah is arrested and charged for conspiring against Kashmir.
Rise of Kashmiri nationalism
1963 December: Mass uprisings in the Kashmir Valley and protests against Articles 356 and 357 of the Indian Constitution occur.
The Indian army charges the protesters.
1964: The government drops all charges in the Kashmir Conspiracy Case.
Sheikh Abdullah is released after 11 years of imprisonment.
1965 January: The Jammu and Kashmir National Conference dissolves itself and merges into the Indian National Congress.
1965 April: Indo-Pakistan War begins.
Pakistani Army infiltrates the ceasefire line, which leads to more violence across the whole of the Kashmir Valley.
1966: Kashmiri nationalists form another Plebiscite Front with an armed wing called the Jammu and Kashmir National Liberation Front (NLF) in Azad Kashmir, with the objective of freeing Kashmir from Indian occupation.
1975: Sheikh Abdullah drops the demands for a plebiscite and resumes power as chief minister of J&K with Congress support.
1977: Congress-JKNC split.
Congress withdraws support for Sheikh Abdullah’s government, paves way for central rule.
1987: Farooq Abdullah wins the Assembly elections.
The Muslim United Front (MUF) alleges the elections to be rigged. The Kashmir Valley insurgency increases in momentum.
1990: Kashmiri youth take to streets to protest against Indian administration and hundreds of them die in clashes with Indian troops.
Central government imposes the Armed Forces Special Powers Act, giving armed forces unprecedented powers to counter armed militancy.
1995: Prime minister PV Narasimha Rao makes a statement in parliament assuring that Article 370 will not be abrogated, reiterating J&K’s integral merging with India.
1996 February: India bans JKLF.
1996 September: Assembly elections held in J&K.
JKNC’s Farooq Abdullah forms government.
2000 November: India puts a ceasefire into effect in Kashmir. However, violence continues.
2001 October: The legislative assembly in Srinagar is attacked.
2006 July: Second round of Indo-Pakistani peace talks take place.
International mediation and revoking Article 370
2007: Amnesty International and other human rights organizations report of gross human rights violations from India.
India denies many of the claims and states it is suppressing terrorism.
2008 August: The beginning of the second uprising by local groups and youths which leads to massive redeployment of Indian security forces.
2010: Protests erupt in J&K over the killing of a young militant.
2015: The BJP forms a government in J&K with People’s Democratic Party for the first time.
2016 April: Mehbooba Mufti becomes chief minister after the death of Mufti Mohammad Sayeed, her father.
2016 July: Violent protests break out in Kashmir Valley following the death of Burhan Wani, another young militant.
Curfew is imposed and continues for more than 50 days. More than 90 people are killed by Indian armed forces.
2017 July: Thousands of residents of J&K take to the streets to commemorate Burhan Wani’s death.
2018 November: Governor Satya Pal Malik dissolves legislative assembly.
2018 December: Central rule is declared in the state.
2019 May: The BJP returns to power for a second term in India.
2019 July: US president Donald Trump offers to mediate the Kashmir issue between India and Pakistan.
2019 August: Prominent Kashmiri leaders, including former chief ministers Omar Abdullah and Mehbooba Mufti, placed under house arrest.
Internet and mobile services curtailed.
Section 144, which prevents a gathering of more than four people in public spaces, imposed.
2019 August: Home minister Amit Shah proposes a presidential order to repeal Article 370 and 35A.
J&K to be bifurcated as two union territories of centrally administered Ladakh and J&K (with its constituent assembly).
Opposition parties protest in parliament; complete shutdown in Kashmir valley.
Former Kashmir chief ministers arrested and moved to undisclosed government locations.