Bangladesh were earlier all out for 150.
Abu Jayed Rahi has sent Rohit Sharma back early to provide Bangladesh with a good start to the Indian innings at Indore.
India are 31-1 after 12 overs.
Bangladesh were bowled out for 150 in the first innings.
Bangladesh were 140-7 at Tea, but Liton Das returned right after the break, and Taijul Islam and Ebadat Hossain soon followed.
Mushfiqur top-scored with 43, whereas all of Indian bowlers albeit Ravindra Jadeja was successful. Mohammad Shami picked up three wickets, with Ishant Sharma, Ravichandran Ashwin and Umesh Yadav picking up a couple each.
Mohammad Shami removed Mushfiqur Rahim and Mehidy Hasan Miraz in back-to-back deliveries to have Bangladesh at 140-7 at tea.
Mominul Hoque and Mushfiqur put on a 68 run 4th wicket partnership after the initial wobble. Tiger skipper was bowled by Ashwin on 37. Mahmudullah too was bowled by the ace spinner a while later after he scored just 10 runs.
India made early inroads as their bowlers made Bangladeshi batsmen toil hard in the first session of the first Test in Indore.
Hosts started brightly with pacers Ishant Sharma and Umesh Yadav maintaining an impeccable line and length from the start.
Both the Bangladesh openers fell within the first hour. Imrul Kayes scored 6 before falling to Yadav. His partner Shadman was out for the same score. Sharma picked him up.
First change pacer Mohammad Shami maintained the pressure as Mominul Hoque and Mohammad Mithun struggled to play their shots.
Tiger skipper Mominul got a life at 3 when he was dropped at the slips off R. Ashwin. His partner at the other end was not so lucky. Having survived one LBW shout from Shami, Mithun fell for 13 to the same bowler.
Veteran Mushfiqur Rahim also got lucky. Indian captain Virat Kohli dropped him on 3. He again got a life on 14 when Ajinkya Rahane missed an easy catch.
Earlier on the day, Mominul won the toss in his first Test match as the skipper of Bangladesh and decided to bat on a wicket which intially looked good for batting. The visitors went with seven batsmen and four bowlers.